Thacker, Paul D, “Transparency and Conflicts in Science: History of Influence, Scandal, and Denial,” Chapter 1 in Integrity, Transparency and Corruption in Healthcare & Research on Health, 2020,Volume I (pp. 3-26), Springer Nature Singapore.

ABSTRACT:

Corporate finances influence many areas of science, originating with tobacco companies which hired public relations firms to protect their profits from research on the harms of smoking. Despite a large body of studies finding that money biases research, scientists and academic organizations fail to embrace the peer-reviewed research on corporate influence. In many instances, they reject the science and try to rationalize behavior, leading a cycle of scandal, followed by reform, followed by later scandal. Because corporate influence is so pervasive and often denied, policymakers must understand this history as well as the research on financial conflicts of interest to protect the public. FULL TEXT