Ford, Holly B., & Schust, Danny J.; “Recurrent pregnancy loss: etiology, diagnosis, and therapy;” Reviews in Obstetrics & Gynecology, 2009, 2(2), 76-83.

ABSTRACT:

Spontaneous pregnancy loss is a surprisingly common occurrence, with approximately 15% of all clinically recognized pregnancies resulting in pregnancy failure. Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) has been inconsistently defined. When defined as 3 consecutive pregnancy losses prior to 20 weeks from the last menstrual period, it affects approximately 1% to 2% of women. This review highlights the current understanding of the various etiologies implicated in RPL, including factors known to be causative, as well as those implicated as possible causative agents. The appropriate diagnostic evaluation, therapy, and prognosis are also addressed. FULL TEXT